Important Articles of the Constitution
Important Articles of the Constitution
Part1 art. 1-4 -- Deals with the territory of India, admission or establishment of the territory of new states, formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states.
Part 2 art. 5-11 -- Comprises citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution, rights of citizenship of certain persons who migrated to India from Pakistan, Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan, rights of citizenship of persons of Indian origin residing outside India, persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign state, continuance of rights of citizenship and the right of parliament to regulate the rights of citizenship by law.
Part 3 art. 12-35 -- Covers the fundamental rights of Indian citizens. Articles 14-18 covers the right to equality. art. 19 deals with the six freedoms of Indian citizens, those are- 1) Freedom of speech and expression, 2) Freedom of assembly, 3) Freedom of association, 4) Freedom of movement throughout the territory of India, 5) Freedom residence and settlement in part if India, 6) Freedom of occupation. Art. 20-22 covers protection to all persons in respect of conviction, prosecution and rights available to them in this regard. Art. 23-24 deal with the right against exploitation and prohibit traffic in human beings, forced labour, employment of children below 14 years in factories, mines,and other hazardous jobs. Art. 25-28 cover the right to religion. Art. 29-30 deal with cultural and educational rights and afford protection to the interests of minorities. Art. 31 covers the right to property was deleted by the forty-forth amendment. Art. 32-35 provide the right to constitutional remedies to the citizens.
Part 4 art. 36-51 – cover Directive Principles of State Policy, which aim at establishing social and economic democracy in the country.
Part (4-A) art. 51A – provide the duties of the citizens of India, which was added by the forty-second amendment in 1976.
Part 5 art. 52-151 – covers the government at the union level. 52-73 deal with the President and Vice- President of India. 74- 75 cover the council of ministers and the Prime minister of India. Art. 77 stipulate that all executive orders of the Government of India shall be taken in the name of the President. Art. 78 specifies the duties of the Indian Prime Minister with respect to the furnishing of information to the President, etc.Art.79- 106 deal with the Indian parliament and the organisation of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha; the delimitation of territorial constituencies; qualification for membership of parliament; power of the President to summon , prorogue and address either house of Parliament; disqualification of members; powers, privileges and immunities of Parliament and its members and so on. Art. 107-122 cover the legislative procedure in Parliament. Art. 123 cover the legislative powers of the President. Art. 124-147 deal with union judiciary. Art. 148-151 deal with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
Part 6 art. 152-237 – deals with the government at the state level. Art 152 – exempts Jammu and Kashmir from the category of ordinary states. Art 153-162 – the state governor. Art. 163- 164 – the chief minister and the council of ministers. Art. 165- the advocate general for the state. Art. 166 relates to conduct of business of the government of a state. Art 167- the duties of chief minister with the respect to furnishing of information to the governor. Art. 168-195 deal with organisation of state legislatures and so on. Art. 196- 212- the legislative procedure in the states. Art. 213 deals with the legislative power of the governor. Art. 214-232 – the organisation and powers of High Courts in the states. Art 233-237 deal with the subordinate courts.
Part 7 art. 238 – Dealt with the states in Part B of the First Schedule was repealed by the 7th Amendment in 1956.
Part 8 art. 239-241 – deals with union territories. These articles contain provisions regarding the administration of union territories. Art 342 relating to Coorg was repealed in 1956 by the 7th Amendment.
Part 9 – relating to territories in Part D of the First Schedule and other territories was repealed in 1956. anew Part 9 was added to the constitution by the 73rd Amendment act, 1992. It comprises of 16 articles and a new schedule ‘Schedule Eleven’. These articles provide for the constitution, composition, election, duration, powers and responsibilities and power to levy taxes and duties by the Panchayati Raj institutions in the rural areas. Schedule Eleven contains 29 subjects on which the Panchayats have administrative control.
A new Part 9-A to the Constitution was added by the 74th Amendment act, 1992. It consists of 18 articles and a new schedule ‘Schedule Twelve’. These articles provide for the Constitution, composition, election and duration of municipalities, power and responsibilities of municipalities in respect of preparation of the plans for economic development, levy tax and other duties. Schedule Twelve contains 12 subjects on which the municipalities exercise administrative control.
Part 10 art. 244, (244 A) – contains the scheduled and tribal areas.
Part 11 art. 245-263 – deals with relations between the union and the states. Art 245-255 deal with the legislative relation and Art. 256-263 deal with administrative relations.
Part 12 264- (300A) – Art. 264-267 deal with finance, property, contracts and suits. Art 268- 300A deal with the distribution of revenue between the union and states, appointment of finance commission, miscellaneous financial provisions, borrowing by the Government of India and state property, contracts, rights, liabilities and obligation suits.
Part 13 art. (301-307)- relates to trade, commerce within the territory.